Tuning a piano is the process of turning the Tuning Pins in order to raise or lower the pitch of the strings. There is an average of 220 strings on a piano, and each must be set to the correct frequency in order for the piano to sound as it should. Not only must the string be set to the correct pitch, but the tuning pin must be set so as not to twist or turn and allow the string to quickly drop in pitch.
“Setting the Pin” is an art that takes years to learn, and is probably the one thing that differentiates expert tuners from the average piano tuner.
Regulation is the process of adjusting all of the moving parts of the piano action to correct specifications. There are an average of 8 adjustments per key (times 88 keys!) that must be set to within a few thousandths of an inch in order to make the approximately 5,000 parts of the piano action work correctly. This “Action Regulation” should be performed every few years on a home piano, and is checked before every performance on a Concert Grand.